Life satisfaction is the most significant determinant of quality of life in the elderly

Main Article Content

Thania Vinsalia
Yvonne Suzy Handajani


Quality of life tends to decrease as age increases. This study aimed to determine the most significant risk factors (family support, spirituality, and life satisfaction) for the elderly’s quality of life.

This was a cross-sectional study of 101 subjects aged ³60 years in West Jakarta. The variables were assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life–BREF (WHOQOL–BREF), Family Support, Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) instruments. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between quality of life and its determinant factors.

Based on sociodemographic characteristics, the respondents were mostly women (66.3%), had more than nine years of education (79.2%), and were married (56.4%). The analysis showed that life satisfaction was significantly associated with overall quality of life (OR=9.71; 95% CI:2.04–46.26; p=0.004) and general health (OR=7.52; 95% CI:1.70–33.25; p=0.008). Life satisfaction was also a risk factor for the environmental domain (OR=36.02; 95% CI:5.07–255.82; p<0.001). Furthermore, spirituality was found to be a risk factor for the physical health domain (OR=4.18; 95% CI:1.51–11.59; p=0.006), psychological domain (OR=6.67; 95% CI:2.4–17.86; p<0.001), and environmental domain (OR=11.46; 95% CI:3.10–42.37; p<0.001).

Life satisfaction plays a significant role in increasing the environmental domain of quality of life, the overall quality of life, and general health among the elderly. Awareness of these factors can assist providers in identifying people at risk and guide new intervention programs to improve care for these invaluable elderly of our communities.

Article Details

How to Cite
Vinsalia, T., & Handajani, Y. S. (2021). Life satisfaction is the most significant determinant of quality of life in the elderly. Universa Medicina, 40(1), 14–21.
Original Articles
Author Biography

Yvonne Suzy Handajani, Department of Public Health and Nutrition, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia



Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Analisis lansia di Indonesia 2017. Jakarta: Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2017.

Badan Pusat Statistik. Statistik Penduduk Lanjut Usia 2018. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik; 2018.

Khaje-Bishak Y, Payahoo L, Pourghasem B, Asghari Jafarabadi M. Assessing the quality of life in elderly people and related factors in Tabriz, Iran. J Caring Sci 2014 1;3:257–63. doi:10.5681/jcs.2014.028.

Kaur H, Kaur H, Venkateashan M. Factors determining family support and quality of life of elderly population. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2015;4:1049. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.21012015220.

Gräske J, Meyer S, Worch A, Wolf-Ostermann K. Family visits in shared-housing arrangements for residents with dementia – a cross-sectional study on the impact on residents’ quality of life. BMC Geriatrics 2015;15:9. doi:10.1186/s12877-015-0012-5.

González-Celis AL, Gómez-Benito J. Spirituality and quality of life and its effect on depression in older adults in Mexico. Psychology 2013;04:178–82. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.43027.

Cowlishaw S, Niele S, Teshuva K, Browning C, Kendig H. Older adults’ spirituality and life satisfaction: a longitudinal test of social support and sense of coherence as mediating mechanisms. Ageing Society 2013 ;33:1243–62. doi:10.1017/S0144686X12000633.

Farajzadeh M, Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Sayehmiri K. Health related quality of life in Iranian elderly citizens: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Commun Based Nurs Midwifery 2017;5:100–11.

Poor HJ, Borji M, Borji M, Moslemi A. The relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of life and optimism on the staff of Arak University of Medical Science. Health Spiritual Med Ethics 2016;3:8–15.

Jafaripoor H, Safarabadi M, Pourandish Y, et al. The elders’ spiritual well-being and their quality of life: a cross-sectional study. J Client-Centered Nurs Care 2019;30;145–54.

Lim HJ, Min DK, Thorpe L, Lee CH. Multidimensional construct of life satisfaction in older adults in Korea: a six-year follow-up study. BMC Geriatrics 2016;16:197. doi: 10.1186/s12877-016-0369-0.

Kiarsipour N, Borhani F, Esmaeili R, Zayeri F. The correlation of aging perceptions and life satisfaction in Iranian older adults. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2017;10:861-8.

Karner-Hutuleac A. Quality of life and spirituality. Eur J Sci Theol 2012;8:135–41.

Bakar N, Asilar RH. Factors affecting depression and quality of life in the elderly. J Gerontol Geriatr Res 2015;04:8. doi:10.4172/2167-7182.1000249.

Salim OC, Sudharma NI, Kusumaratna RK, Hidayat A. Validitas dan reliabilitas WHOQOL-BREF untuk mengukur kualitas hidup lanjut usia. Univ Med 2016; 26: 27-38. DOI:

Soósová MS, Mauer B. Psychometrics properties of the daily spiritual experience scale in Slovak elderly. J Relig Health 2020;59. doi:10.1007/s10943-020-00994-w.

Underwood LG. The daily spiritual experience scale: overview and results. Religions 2011;2:29–50. doi:10.3390/rel2010029.

Loustalot F, Wyatt SB, Sims M, Ellison CG, Taylor HA, Underwood L. Psychometric testing of the daily spiritual experiences scale among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. J Relig Health 2011;50:675–85. doi:10.1007/s10943-009-9278-2.

Tselebis A, Anagnostopoulou T, Bratis D, et al. The 13 item family support scale: reliability and validity of the Greek translation in a sample of Greek health care professionals. Asia Pac Fam Med 2011;10:3.

Bratis D, Tselebis A, Sikaras C, et al. Alexithymia and its association with burnout, depression and family support among Greek nursing staff. Hum Resour Health 2009;7:6. doi:10.1186/1478-4491-7-72.

Diener E, Emmons RA, Larsen RJ, Griffin S. The satisfaction with life scale. J Pers Assess 2010;49:71–5.

Boylu AA, Günay G. Life satisfaction and quality of life among the elderly: moderating effect of activities of daily living. Turkish J Geriatr 2017;20:61-9.

Galanakis M, Lakioti A, Pezirkianidis C, Karakasidou E. Reliability and validity of the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) in a Greek sample. Int J Humanit Soc Stud 2017;5:9.

Silva PAB, Soares SM, Santos JFG, Silva LB. Cut-off point for WHOQOL-BREF as a measure of quality of life of older adults. Rev Saúde Pública 2014;48:390–7.

Ranganathan P, Pramesh CS, Aggarwal R. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: logistic regression. Perspect Clin Res 2017;8:148–51. doi:10.4103/picr.PICR_87_17.

Onunkwor OF, Al-Dubai SAR, George PP, et al. A cross-sectional study on quality of life among the elderly in non-governmental organizations’ elderly homes in Kuala Lumpur. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2016;14:10. doi: 10.1186/s12955-016-0408-8.

Campos ACV, Ferreira EF, Vargas AMD, Albala C. Aging, gender and quality of life (AGEQOL) study: factors associated with good quality of life in older Brazilian community-dwelling adults. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2014;12:11. doi: 10.1186/s12955-014-0166-4.

Gobbens RJ, Remmen R. The effects of sociodemographic factors on quality of life among people aged 50 years or older are not unequivocal: comparing SF-12, WHOQOL-BREF, and WHOQOL-OLD. Clin Interv Aging 2019;14:231–9. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S189560.

Gobbens RJ, van Assen MALM. Associations between multidimensional frailty and quality of life among Dutch older people. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2017;73:69–76. DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2017.07.007.

Sabik NJ. Ageism and body esteem: associations with psychological well-being among late middle-aged African American and European American women. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2015;70:189–99. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbt080. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbt080.

Suwarni S, Soemanto RB, Sudiyanto A. Effect of dementia, family support, peer support, type of residence, and marital status on quality of life of the elderly in Surakarta, Central Java. J Epidemiol Public Health 2018;3:83–94.

García LMR, Navarrro JMR. The impact of quality of life on the health of older people from a multidimensional perspective. J Aging Res 2018;2018:7. DOI:

Counted V, Possamai A, Meade T. Relational spirituality and quality of life 2007 to 2017: an integrative research review. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2018;16:18. doi:10.1186/s12955-018-0895-x.

Panzini RG, Mosqueiro BP, Zimpel RR, Bandeira DR, Rocha NS, Fleck MP. Quality-of-life and spirituality. Int Rev Psychiatr 2017;29:263–82. DOI:

Seraji M, Shojaezade D, Rakhshani F. The relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of life among the elderly people residing in Zahedan city (South-East of Iran). Elderly Health J 2016;2:84-8.

Lucas-Carrasco R, Den Oudsten BL, Eser E, Power MJ. Using the satisfaction with life scale in people with Parkinson’s disease: a validation study in different European countries. Sci World J 2014; Article ID 680659. doi:10.1155/2014/680659.

Yildirim Y, Kilic SP, Akyol AD. Relationship between life satisfaction and quality of life in Turkish nursing school students: nursing student quality of life. Nursing Health Sci 2013;15:415–22.

Indrayani I, Ronoatmodjo S. Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kualitas hidup lansia di desa Cipasung kabupaten Kuningan tahun 2017. J Kesehat Reprod 2018;9:1-10. DOI: