Paradoxical sleep deprivation changes testicular malondialdehyde and caspase-3 expression in male rats

Main Article Content

Fitranto Arjadi
Ginus Partadireja
Lientje Setyawan Maurits
Mulyono Pangestu


Sleep deprivation is a significant problem among adult men and is considered as a risk factor for several diseases. Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) induces Leydig cell apoptosis through elevation of corticosterone, with testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and Leydig cell caspase-3 expression as parameters. The aim of this study was to observe testicular MDA level and caspase-3 expression treated with paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD), immobilization, and footshock stress and to determine the stress model with a significant effect in white male rats (Rattus norvegicus) .

This experimental randomized study of posttest only with control group design was conducted on 24 white male Wistar strain rats, randomly allocated into four treatment groups, i.e. control (K1) without any stress treatment, PSD (KII), immobilization (KIII), and footshock stress (KIV). Treatments were given for 25 days to produce chronic stress. Testicular MDA concentration was examined by the ELISA method while caspase-3 was examined by the TUNEL method.

Mean testicular MDA concentration with one-way ANOVA test showed differences in means between the groups (p=0.000) and post hoc Tukey-HSD test showed significant results between PSD stress group versus control, immobilization and footshock stress groups. One-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference in caspase-3 expression in at least two treatment groups (p=0.008) and post-hoc Tuckey-LSD test showed significant differences between controls and all stress groups.

Sleep deprivation is a type of stress inducing changes in testicular MDA concentration and caspase-3 expression in male rat testes.

Article Details

How to Cite
Arjadi, F., Partadireja, G., Maurits, L. S., & Pangestu, M. (2015). Paradoxical sleep deprivation changes testicular malondialdehyde and caspase-3 expression in male rats. Universa Medicina, 34(2), 87–95.
Review Article
Author Biographies

Fitranto Arjadi, Jenderal Soedirman University

anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine and health Sciences

Ginus Partadireja, Gadjah mada University

Physiology Department Faculty of medicine

Lientje Setyawan Maurits, Gadjah Mada University

Department of Occupational health

Mulyono Pangestu, Monash Institute of Medical Research Australia

Education Programme Reproduction and Development


Nakada K, Sato A, Yoshida K, et al. Mitochondria-related male infertility. PNAS 2006;103:15148-53.

Premendu P, Huang L, Kashou A, et al. Environmental toxicants and testicular apoptosis. Reprod Sci J 2011;3:114-24.

Arjadi F, Soejono SK, Pangestu M. Paradoxical sleep deprivation decreases serum testosterone and Leydig cells in male rats. Univ Med 2014;33: 27-35.

Pfaff TJ, Rhodes MB, Weinbauer GF. Inhibin B as a marker of Sertoli cell damage and spermatogenic disturbance in the rat. Birth Defects Res 2013;98:91-103.

Ghavami S, Hashemi M, Ande SR, et al. Apoptosis and cancer: mutations within caspase genes. J Med Genet 2009;46:497-510.

Lima AMA, de Bruin VMS, Rios ERV, et al. Differential effects of paradoxial sleep deprivation on memory and oxidative stress. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 2014; 378:399-406.

Aitken RJ, Roman SD. Antioxidant systems and oxidative stress in testes. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2008;1:15-24.

Pusparini CW, Aulanni’am, Oktavianie DA. Kadar malondialdehyde (MDA) dan gambaran histopatologi organ paru pada hewan model tikus (Rattus norvegicus) asma dengan induksi lipopolisakarida. UBJ Chem 2012;1:1-7.

Sakr SA, Somaya YS. Carbendazim-induced testicular damage and oxidative stress in albino rats: ameliorative effect of licorice aqueous extract. Toxicol Ind Health 2014;30;259-67.

Duru FIO, Noronha CC, Akinwande AI, et al. Effects of torsion, detorsion and melatonin on testicular malondialdehyde level. West African J Med 2007;26:312-5,

Hipolide DC, Suchecki D, Pimentel DCP, et al. Paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery: effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, energy balance and body composition of rats. J Neuroendocrinol 2006;18: 231-8.

Willems RA. Regulatory issues regarding the use of food and water restriction in laboratory animals. Lab Anim 2009;38:325-8.

Andersen ML, Silva A, Kawakami R, et al. The effects of sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on pain thresholds of rats with chronic pain. Sleep Sci 2009;2:82-7.

Dagyte G, Van der Zee EA, Postema F, et al. Chronic but not acute foot-shock stress leads to temporary suppression of cell proliferation in rat hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2009;162:904-13.

Thamaraiselvi K, Mathangi DC, Subhashini AS. Effect of increase in duration of REM sleep deprivation on lipid peroxidation. Int J Biol Med Res 2012;3:1754-9.

Perdomo J, Cabrera J, Estévez F, et al. Melatonin induces apoptosis through a caspase-dependent but reactive oxygen species-independent mechanism in human leukemia Molt-3 cells. J Pineal Res 2013;55:195-206.

Alvarenga TA, Monica LA, Javier VM, at al. Food restriction or sleep deprivation: which exerts a greater inûuence on the sexual behaviour of male rats? Behav Brain Res 2009;202:266-71.

Shaha C, Tripati R, Mishra DP. Male germ cell apoptosis: regulation and biology. Phil Trans R Soc B 2010;365:1501-15.

Bitgul G, Tekmen I, Keles D, et al. Protective effects of resveratrol against chronic immobilization stress on testis. ISRN Urol 2013; 1-10.

Jafari M, Salehi M, Zardooz H, et al. Response of liver antioxidant defense system to acute and chronic physical and psychological stresses in male rats. XCLI J 2014;13:161-71.

Thorburn A. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathway signaling. J Thorac Oncol 2007;2:461-5.

Tsutsui K, Ukena K. Hypothalamic LPXRF-amide peptides in vertebrates: identification, localization and hypophysiotropic activity. Peptides 2006;27:1121-9.