Main Article Content
Cancer is a dreadful disease caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. Annona muricata L, also known as soursop, is useful as an anticancer herbal medication since its leaves, seeds and fruits contain active compounds called annonaceous acetogenins. The objective of this study was to scientifically justify the traditional application of soursop for anticancer treatment in the community, by comparing the antiproliferative effect of Annona muricata L leaf, seed and fruit aqueous extracts on T47D breast cancer cells.
This study used an experimental post test trial with control group design. Infusions of soursop leaves, seeds, and fruits collected from Kaliurang, Sleman district, Yogyakarta were used for cytotoxicity tests on T47D cells, in comparison with tamoxifen as standard cancer therapy. Proliferative inhibition was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide [MTT] assay. The parameter of proliferative inhibition was IC50 which is defined as 50% proliferative inhibition ability of soursop and tamoxifen. Significant differences between groups were determined at p<0.05 by Kruskal-Wallis test.
The leaves, fruits, and seeds Annona muricata and tamoxifen were proven to be able to inhibit T47D cell proliferation. The IC50 of Annona muricata leaf, seed, fruit aqueous extracts and tamoxifen were 31,384.21 µg/ml; 1.528,800 µg/ml; 329,194.81 µg/ml and 114.52 µg/ml, respectively (p=0.016). The IC50 of Annona muricata aqueous extract was significantly different from that of tamoxifen.
The proliferative inhibition of soursop leaves against T47D breast cancer cells is higher than that of soursop fruits and seeds. Annona muricata fruit, seed, and leaf aqueous extracts were less toxic than tamoxifen
Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. Ca Cancer J Clin 2011;6:69–90.
World Health Organization International Ageing for Research on Cancer. GLOBOCAN 2008: cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide. Lyon: IARC Press;2010.
Departemen Kesehatan. Laporan nasional Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2007. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI; 2008.
Ng CH, Pathy BN, Taib NA, Teh YC, Mun KS, Amiruddin A, et al. Comparison of breast cancer in Indonesia and Malaysia – a clinico-pathological study between Dharmais Cancer Centre Jakarta and Universiti Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. Asian Pac J Cancer P 2011;12:2943-6.
Keam B, Im SA, Kim HJ, Oh DY, Kim JH, Lee SH, et al. Prognostic impact of clinicopathologic parameters in stage II/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel and doxorubicin chemotherapy: paradoxical features of the triple negative breast cancer. BMC Cancer 2007;7:1-11.
Olaku O, White JD. Herbal therapy use by cancer patients: a literature review on case reports. Eur J Cancer 2011;47:508–14.
Anderson JG, Taylor G. Use of complementary therapies for cancer symptom management: results of the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. J Altern Complement Med 2012;18:235–41.
Wasito H. Meningkatkan peran perguruan tinggi melalui pengembangan obat tradisional. Mimbar 2008;24:117-27.
Mishra S, Ahmad S, Kumar N. Sharma BK. Annona muricata (the cancer killer): a review. TGJPR 2012;2:1613-8.
Gholse YN, Yadav SR. Developments in nutraceuticals for chemoprevention: a review. IJPT 2012;4:1950-73.
Yukes JE, Balick MJ. Dominican medicinal plants: a guide for health care providers. 2nd ed. New York: The New York Botanical Garden; 2010.
Ezirim AU, Okochi VI, James AB, Adebeshi OA, Ogunnowo S, Odeghe O. Induction of apoptosis in myelogenous leukemic K562 cells by ethanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata L. Global J Res Med Plants Indigen 2013;2:142–51.
Rachmani EPN, Suhesti TS, Widiastuti R. The breast of anticancer from leaf extract of Annona muricata against cell line in T47D. Int J Appl Sci Technol 2012;2:157-64.
Hamizah S, Roslida AH, Fezah O, Tan KL, Tor YS, Tan CI. Chemopreventive potential of Annona muricata L leaves on chemically-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice. Asian Pac J Cancer P 2012;13:2533-9.
George VC, Kumar DRN, Rajkumar V, Suresh PK, Kumar RA. Quantitative assessment of the relative antineoplastic potential of the n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata Linn. in normal and immortalized human cell lines. Asian Pac J Cancer P 2012;13:699-704.
Owolabi MS, Ogundajo AL, Dosoky NS, Setze WN. The cytotoxic activity of Annona muricata leaf oil from Badagary, Nigeria. AJEONP 2013; 1:1-3.
Consolacion R, Geneveve S, Oscar T, Ming-Jaw D, Chien-Chang S. Acetogenins from Annona muricata. Phcog J 2012;4:32-7.
Liaw CC, Chang FR, Wu CC, Chen SL, Bastow KF, Hayashi KI, et al. Nine new cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuranic annonaceous acetogenins from Annona montana. Planta Med 2004;70: 948–59.
Champy P, Melot A, Guerineau V, Gleye C, Fall D, Hoglinger GU, et al. Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in Guadeloupe. Mov Disord 2005;20:1629-33.
Adewole SO, Ojewole JAO. Protective effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaf aqueous extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Afr J Trad CAM 2009;6:30-41.
Pandey N, Barve D. Phytochemical and pharmacological review on Annona squamosa Linn. IJRPBS 2011;2:1404-12.
Dai Y, Hogan S, Schmelz EM, Ju YH, Canning C, Zhou K. Selective growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells by graviola fruit extract in vitro and in vivo involving downregulation of EGFR expression. Nutr Cancer 2012;63:795-801.
Nandhakumar E, Indumathi P. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol and aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (L.) fruit pulp. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2013;6:142-8.
Sousa OV, Vieira GD, Pinho JJRG, Yamamoto CH, Alves MS. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of Annona muricata L. leaves in animal models. Int J Mol Sci 2010;11:2067-78.
Foong CP, Hamid RA. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaves. Braz J Pharmacogn 2012;22:1301-7.
Ukwubile CA. Phytochemical screening and anti-ovarian cancer properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) seed ethanol extract. IJPFR 2012;2:9-17.