Women and stroke patients are more at risk for fall- related injury among older persons

Main Article Content

Sulistyowati Tuminah Darjoko
Woro Riyadina Djoeworo
Aprildah Nur Sapardin


In Indonesia, the prevalence of injury has increased from 7.9% in 2007 to 8.2% in 2013. Among older persons, falls were the main cause of injury. The objective of this study was to determine the major risk factors and the magnitude of the risk for fall-related injury in older persons.

A study of cross-sectional design was conducted on 4,222 respondents aged 60 years and over. Injury was defined as fall-related injury occurring in the previous 12 months that disturbed activity dailyu living (ADL). Data collection was done by: 1) interview about sociodemographics and health (including hearing impairment, non-communicable diseases and injury) using a questionnaire, 2) measurement of blood pressure and anthropometry (body mass index), 3) examination of vision in the right nd left eyes using tumbling E cards and pinhole eye covers. Data were analyzed using the chi square test and multiple logistic regression with 0.05 significance level.

After controlling for age, occupation, vision disorder, educational level and economic status, older women had a 2.0-fold increased risk for fall-related injury compared to men (aOR=2.30; 95% CI: 1.93-2.73; p=0.000); subjects with a history of stroke had a 2.0-fold increased risk for fall-related injury compared to those without a history of stroke (aOR=2.07; 95% CI: 1.38-3.09; p=0.000). Educational level was a confounding factor.

Women and stroke sufferers were at higher risk of fall-related injury among older persons. Prevention of fall-related injury should be done by older persons through periodic control of their health condition.

Article Details

How to Cite
Darjoko, S. T., Djoeworo, W. R., & Sapardin, A. N. (2016). Women and stroke patients are more at risk for fall- related injury among older persons. Universa Medicina, 35(1), 10–18. https://doi.org/10.18051/UnivMed.2016.v35.10-18
Original Articles
Author Biographies

Sulistyowati Tuminah Darjoko, Research and Development Center of Community Health Efforts

Kementerian Kesehatan RI

Penata Tk.I/IIId - Peneliti Muda

Woro Riyadina Djoeworo, Research and Development Center of Community Health Efforts

Kementerian Kesehatan RI

Pembina Tk.I/IV b - Peneliti Madya

Aprildah Nur Sapardin, Health Resource and Services Center, Health Research and Development Agency, Ministry of Health, Repubic of Indonesia

Kementrian Kesehatan RI

Penata / III b - Peneliti Pertama


Jamebozorgi AA, Kavoosi A, Shafiee Z, et al. Investigation of the prevalent fall-related risk factors of fractures in elderly referred to Tehran Hospitals. Med J Islamic Republic Iran 2013;27:23-30.

Riyadina W. Profil cedera akibat jatuh, kecelakaan lalu lintas dan terluka benda tajam/tumpul pada masyarakat Indonesia. Jurnal Penyakit Tidak Menular. 2009;1:1-11.

Kementerian Kesehatan. Pokok-pokok hasil Riskesdas 2013. Jakarata: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan;2014.

Lok N, Akin B. Domestic environmental risk factors associated with falling in elderly. Iranian J Publ Health 2013;42:120-8.

Damian J, Pastor-Barriuso R, Valderrama-Gama E, et al. Factors associated with falls among older adults living in institutions. BMC Geriatrics 2013;13:6. Available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2318/13/6.

SN Sabatini, HE Kusuma, Tambunan L. Faktor eksternal risiko jatuh lansia: studi empiris. Prosiding Temu Ilmiah IPLBI; 2015 Okt 30-31; Manado, Sulawesi Utara; 2015.p.1-6.

Reed-Jones RJ, Solis GR, Lawson KA, et al. Vision and falls: multidisciplinary review of the contribution of visual impairment to falls among older adults. Maturitas 2013;75:22-8.

Rodriguez IG, Fraga GP, De Azevedo Barros MB. Falls among the elderly: risk factors in a population-based study. Rev Bras Epidemiol 2014;705-18. DOI: 10.1590/1809-4503201400030011.

Jalayondeja C, Sullivan PE, Pichaiyongwongdee S. Six-month prospective study of fall risk factors identification in patients post-stroke. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014;14:778-85.

Riyadina W. Cedera akibat jatuh pada penduduk usia lanjut yang mengalami obesitas di Indonesia. Jurnal Penyakit Tidak Menular 2009;1:73-83.

Williams SJ, Kowal P, Hestekin H, et al. Prevalence, risk factors and disability associated with fall-related injury in older adults in low-and middle-income countries: results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). BMC Medicine 2015;13:1-12. doi: 10.1186/s12916-015-0390-8.

Kameel MH, Abdulmajeed AA, Ismail SE. Risk factors of falls among elderly living in Urban Suez – Egypt. Pan African Med J 2013;14:26. doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.14.26.1609.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Pedoman Pemeriksaan Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan; 2013.

American Academy of Family Physicians. Joint National Committee (JNC) - 8 Guidelines for the management of hypertension in adults. Am Fam Physicians 2014;90:503-4.

Gray LJ, Yates T, Davies MJ, et al. Defining obesity cut-off points for migrant South Asians. PLoS ONE 2011;6: e26464. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026464.

Grundstrom AC, Guse CE, Layde PM. Risk factors for falls and falls-related injuries in adults 85 years of age and older. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2012;54: 421-8.

Pi HY, Hu MM, Zhang J, et al. Circumstances of falls and fall-related injuries among frail elderly under home care in China. Int J Nursing Sciences 2015;2:237-42. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2015.07.002.

Orces CH. Prevalence and determinants of falls among older adults in Ecuador: An analysis of the SABE I Survey. Current Gerontol Geriatr Res 2013;1-7. Article ID 495468, 7 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/495468

Kuang TM, Tsai SY, Hsu WM, Cheng CY, Liu JH, Chou P. Visual impairment and falls in the elderly: the Shihpai Eye Study. J Chin Med Assoc 2008;71:467-72.

S Prihatini, Vita KM, Abas BJ, Herman S. Faktor determinan risiko osteoporosis di tiga provinsi di Indonesia. Media Litbang Kesehatan 2010;20: 91-9.

Thurman DJ, Stevens JA, Rao JK. Practice parameter: assessing patients in a neurology practice for risk of falls (an evidence-based review): report of the quality standard subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2008;70:473-9.

Hayashi T, Kondo K, Suzuki K, et al. Factors associated with falls in community-dwelling older people with focus on participation in sport organization: the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study Project. Bio Med Research Int 2014;1-10.

Qader MAA, Amin RM, Shah SA, et al. Psychological risk factors associated with falls among elderly people in Bagdad City. Iraq Open J Prev Med 2013;3:441-5.