Validity and reliability of Preschool Language Scale 4 for measuring language development in children 48-59 months of age

Main Article Content

Nuryani Sidarta
Angela BM Tulaar
Amendi Nasution
Suryanto Suryanto


Prevalence rates for speech and language delay have been reported across wide ranges. Speech and language delay affects 5% to 8% of preschool children, often persisting into the school years.  A cross-sectional study was conducted in 208 children aged 48-59 months to determine the validity and reliability of the Indonesian edition of the Preschool Language Scale version 4 (PLS4) as a screening tool for the identification of language development disorders. Construct validity was examined by using Pearson correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was tested and repeated measurements were taken to establish the stability coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for test-retest reliability. For construct validity, the Pearson correlation coefficient ranged from 0.151-0.526, indicating that all questions in this instrument were valid for measuring auditory comprehension (AC) and expressive communication skills (EC). Cronbach’s alpha level ranged from 0.81-0.95 with standard error of measurement (SEM) ranging from 3.1-3.3. Stability coefficients ranged from 0.98-.0.99 with ICC coefficient ranging from 0.97-0.99 both of which showed an excellent reliability. This study found that PLS-4 is a valid and reliable instrument. It is easy to handle and can be recommended for assessing language development in children aged 48-59 months.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sidarta, N., Tulaar, A. B., Nasution, A., & Suryanto, S. (2008). Validity and reliability of Preschool Language Scale 4 for measuring language development in children 48-59 months of age. Universa Medicina, 27(4), 174–182.
Review Article


Owen R.E. The territory. In: Owen RE. Language development – nn introduction. Boston: Ally & Bacon; 2001. p. 12-29.

Catt HW, Fey ME, Tomblin JB. Zhang X. A longitudinal investigastion of reading outcomes in children with language impairments. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2002; 45: 1142-7.

Rescorla L, Alley A. Validation of the language development survey (LDS): a parent report tool for identifying language delay in toddlers. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2001; 434-45.

US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for speech and language delay in preschool children : recommendation statement. Pediatrics 2006;117 : 497-501.

Roulstone S, Peters TJ, Glogowska M, Enderby P. A 12-month follow up of preschool children investigating the natural history of speech and language delay. Child Care Health Dev 2003; 29: 245-55.

Halfon N, Olson I, Inkelas M, Lange I. Summary statistics from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health, 2000. National Center for Health Statistics.Vital Health Stat 2002; 15: 1-34.

Rahmanoe M. Spektrum faktor lingkungan yang berpengaruh terhadap terjadinya gangguan berbicara pada anak. IKA-RSCM; 1999.

Jaenudin E. Stimulasi keluarga pada perkembangan bicara anak usia 6 sampai 36 bulan di Kelurahan Kuningan, Semarang Utara (thesis). Semarang: IKA-/RSUP Dr Kariadi; 2000.

Harahap R.E. Perbandingan uji tapis Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener dengan uji tapis Denver II untuk deteksi dini keterlambatan perkembangan bayi usia 3-24 bulan dengan menggunakan baku emas Griffiths Mental Development Scales (thesis). Jakarta: IKA-RSCM; 2006.

Bricker D, Squires J, Mounts L. Ages and stages questionnaires: a parent-completed, child-monitoring system. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Paul H: Brookes; 1999.

Nelson HD, Nygren P, Walker M, Panoscha R. Screening for speech and language delay in preschool children: systematic evidence review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics 2006;117: e298-e319.

Fenson L, Pethick SJ, Renda C, Cox JL, Dale PS, Reznick JS. Short-form versions of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. Appl Psycholinguist 2000; 21: 95–6.

Coulter L, Gallagher C. Piloting new ways of working: evaluation of the WILSTAAR Programme. Int J Lang Commun Disord 2001; 36: 270–5.

Zimmerman IL, Castilleja NF. The role of a language scale for infant and preschool assessment. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. Res Rev 2005; 11: 238-46.

HOI KS. Review of the Preschool Language Scale – Fourth Edition, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. Available at: http://suen.ed. 20language%20scale.pdf ). Accessed September 3, 2008.

Nelson HD, Nygren P, Walker M, Panoscha R. Screening for Speech and Language Delay in Preschool Children. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2006. Evidence Synthesis No. 41. Available at: htm. Accessed September 3, 2008.

Zimmerman IL, Steiner VG, Pond RE. Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4). Technical Report. Available at: Accessed August 30, 2008.

Restrepo MA, Silverman SW. Validity of the Spanish Preschool Language Scale-3 for use with bilingual children. Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2001;10: 382-93.

Huaqing QI, Kaiser AP. The Performance of Low-Income African American Children on the Preschool Language Scale-3. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2003;46: 576-90.

Rescorla L. Language delay and behavioral/emotional problems in toddlers: findings from two developmental clinics. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2007; 50: 1063-78.