Main Article Content
One of the extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D for health is associated with cardiovascular disease. Poor vitamin D status has been associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. There were controversial results about the association between vitamin D deficiency and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) concentration. The purpose of the present study was to determine the concentrations of 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] in an elderly population and to find any association between 25(OH)D and MMP-9 concentrations.
This study was of cross-sectional design involving 160 male and female subjects aged 55–65 years, in South Jakarta, Indonesia. Determination of MMP-9 and 25(OH)D concentrations was done concurrently on subjects who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria after all study subjects had been selected. 25(OH)D and MMP-9 concentrations were assessed by direct competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Statistical analysis used chi square and t tests.
Mean 25(OH)D concentration in the study subjects was 14.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL. A total of 68.8% of subjects had a 25(OH)D level of <20 ng/mL, and 31.2 % had a 25(OH)D level of >20 ng/mL.There was an increased MMP-9 concentration in male subjects with a 25(OH)D level of <20 ng/mL compared with subjects with 25(OH)D level of >20 ng/mL (p=0.011), but not among female subjects (p=0.809).
The MMP-9 concentration was increased among male subjects with low level of (OH)D. This study confirmed that 25(OH)D concentration may have a potential role in endothelial function.
Ku YC, Liu ME, Ku CS, et al. Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease. World J Cardiol 2013;26:337-46.
Alyami A, Soares MJ, Sherriff JZ, et al. Vitamin D & endothelial function. Indian J Med Res 2014;140:483-90.
Norman PE, Powell JT. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Circ Res 2014;114:379-93.
Mozos I, Marginean O. Links between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular diseases. Biomed Res Int 2015;109275. DOI:10.1155/2015/109275.
Holick M. Vitamin D deficiency. N Eng J Med 2007;357:266-81.
Anderson JL, May HT, Horne BD, et al. Relation of vitamin D deficiency to cardiovasvular risk factors, disease status, and incident events in a general healthcare population. Am J Cardiol 2010;106:963-8.
Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2008;117:503-11.
Upadhyay RK. Emerging risk biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases and disorders. J Lipids 2015. article ID 971453. DOI: 10.1155/2015/971453.
Teixeira BC, Lopez AL, Macedo RCO, et al. Inflammatory markers, endothelial function and cardiovascular risk. Vasc Bras 2014;13:108-15. DOI: 10.1590/vb.2014054.
Yabluchanskiy A, Ma Y, Iyer RP, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9: many shades of function in cardiovascular disease. Physiology 2013;28:391-403.
Garvin P, Nilsson L, Carstensen J, et al. Circulating matrix metalloproteinase is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in a middle aged normal population. PloS ONE 2008;3:e1774. DOI: 10.137/journal.pone. 0001774.
Jablonski KL, Chonchol M, Pierce GL, et al. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency is associated with inflammation-linked vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle aged and older adults. Hypertension 2011;57:63-9.
Wasse H, Cardarelli F, de Staercke C, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is inversely associated with serum MMP-9 in a cross sectional study of African American ESRD patients. BMC Nephrol 2011;12:24. doi: 1471-2369/12/24.
Timms PM, Mannan N, Hitman GA, et al. Circulating MMP-9, vitamin D and variation in the TIMP-1 response with VDR genotype: mechanisms for inflammatory damage in chronic disorders? Q J Med 2002;95:787-96.
Shab-Bidar S, Neyestani TR, Djazayery A, et al. Regular consumption of vitamin D fortified yogurt drink (doogh) improved endothelial biomarkers in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double blind clinical trial. BMC Medicine 2011;9:125. doi: 1741-7015/9/125.
Baker A, Wood CL, Timms PM, et al. Changes in vitamin D and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in submariners during a submerged patrols. Occup Environ Med 2014;71:104-8. doi:10.1138/oemed-2013-101793.
Collins A. Practice implications for preventing population vulnerability related to vitamin D status. J Am Ass Nurse Prac 2013;25:109-18.
Wielders JPM, Carter GF, Ebert H, et al. Automated competitive protein binding assay for total 25(OH) vitamin D, multicenter evaluation and practical performance. J Clin Lab Anal 2014;00:1-14. DOI 10.1002/jcla.21793.
McGreevy C, Williams D. New insights about vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: a narrative review. Ann Intern Med 2011;155:820-6. DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-155-12-20112202-00004.
Setiati S. Vitamin D status among Indonesian elderly women living in institutionalized care units. Acta Med Indones 2008;40:78-83.
Carter GD. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D: a difficult analyte. Clin Chem 2012;58:486-8.
Holmes EW, Garbincius J, McKenna KM. Analytical variability among methods for the measurement of 25 hydroxyvitamin D. Am J Clin Pathol 2013;40:550-60.
Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Rockell JEP, et al. Vitamin D status and its association with parathyroid hormone concentrations in women of child bearing age living in Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur. Eur J Clin Nutr 2008;62:373-8.
Goswami R,Ishra SK, Kochupillai N. Prevalence & potential significance of vitamin D deficiency in Asian Indians. Indian J Med Res 2008;127: 229-38.
Fraser WD, Milan AM. Vitamin D assays: Past and present debates, difficulties and developments. Calcif Tissue Int 2013. doi: 10.1007/s00223-012-9693-3.
Khan KA, Akram PJ, Fazal M. Hormonal actions of vitamin D and its role beyond just being a vitamin: a review article. Int J Med Sci 2011;3: 65-72.
Johnson LK, Hofso D, Aasheim ET, et al. Impact of gender on vitamin D deficiency in morbidity obese patients : a cross sectional study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012;66:83-90.
SalekzamaniS, Neyestani TR, Alavi-Majd H, et al. Is vitamin D status a determining factor for metabolic syndrome? A case control study. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2011;4:205-12.
Cheng S, Massaro JM, Fox CS, et al. Adipocytes, cardiometabolic risk, and vitamin D status: The Framingham heart study. Diabetes 2010;59:242-8.
Welsh P, Whincup PH, Papacosta O, et al. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 and coronary artery disease: a prospective study in middle aged men. QJM 2008;101:785-91.
Lucey A, Hill T, Muldowney S, et al. No effect of vitamin D supplementation on circulating concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in adults aged 20-40 and 64 years. Proceed Nutr Soc 2009;68: E151. Doi: 10.1017/S0029665109991078.
Holick MF. Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention autoimmune disease, cancers and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1678S-88S.