Main Article Content
Skin hydration decreases with aging. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a major protein that plays a role in skin hydration, therefore it is a novel target for skin moisturizing treatment. Retinoic acid (RA) as a well-known active agent in antiaging treatment increases AQP3 expression, but frequently causes harmful side effects. Asiaticoside, a saponin compound isolated from Centella asiatica (CA) is also known as an antiaging cosmetic and plays a role in wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of asiaticoside isolated from CA and the effect of RA on the AQP3 expression in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs).
An experimental laboratory study was performed using primary NHEKs that were derived from the foreskin of a boy. AQP3 expression in NHEKs was examined in vitro after the cells were incubated for 24 hours with asiaticoside or with RA at several concentrations. The AQP3 expression was evaluated by immunocytochemistry and quantitatively analyzed by Image-J software. Independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data, followed by post-hoc Tukey test.
There was an increasing trend of AQP3 expression upon exposure to asiaticoside at all concentrations compared to the control group. However, RA exposure seemed to induce a higher level of AQP3 expression. Asiaticoside effected a lower increase in AQP3 expression in NHEKs than did RA (p=0.042). Optimal results were achieved at 1 mg/mL concentration of asiaticoside.
Asiaticoside isolated from CA can enhance the AQP3 expression in NHEKs. Therefore it can be used as an active ingredient in cosmetic moisturizer formulation for dry skin treatment.
Rhein L. Aging skin-General considerations. In: Rhein L, Fluhr JW, editors. Aging skin: current and future theurapeutic strategies. USA: Allured Books; 2010.p.8-11.
Rabe JH, Mamelak AJ, McElgunn PJ, et al. Photoaging: mechanisms and repair. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;55:1-19.
Sugiyama Y, Yamazaki K, Kusaka-Kikushima A, et al. Analysis of aquaporin 9 expression in human epidermis and cultured keratinocytes. FEBS Open Bio 2014;4:611-6.
Boury-Jamot M, Sougrat R, Tailhardat M, et al. Expression and function of aquaporins in human skin: is aquaporin-3 just a glycerol transporter? Biochim Biophys Acta 2006;1758:1034-42.
Draelos Z. Aquaporins: an introduction to a key factor in the mechanism of skin hydration. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2012;5:53–6.
Verkman AS. A cautionary note on cosmetics containing ingredients that increase aquaporin 3 expression. Exp Dermatol 2008;17:871–2.
Baumann L. Skin ageing and its treatment. J Pathol 2007;211:241–51.
Rittie L, Fisher GJ, Voorhess JJ. Retinoid therapy for photoaging. In: Gilchrest B, Krutmann J,editors. Skin aging. Berlin: Springer;2006. p.143–56.
Rawling AV. Retinoids and retinoic acid treatment of skin aging. In: Rhein LD, Fluhr JW,editors. Aging skin: current and future therapeutic strategies. Illinois: Allured Books; 2010.p.19–234.
Cao C, Wan S, Jiang Q, et al. All-trans acid attenuates ultraviolet radiation-induced down-regulation of aquaporin-3 and water permeability in human keratinocytes.J Cell Physio 2008;215: 506-16.
Ji C, Yang Y, Yang B, et al. Trans-zeatin attenuates ultraviolet induced down-regulation of aquaporin-3 in cultured human skin keratinocytes.Int J Mol Med 2010;26:257-63.
Bhavna D, Jyoti K. Centella asiatica: the elixir of life. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2011;2:431–8.
Gohil KJ, Patel JA, Gajjar AK. Pharmacological review on Centella asiatica: a potential herbal cure-all. Indian J Pharm Sci 2010;72:546–56.
Zainol NA, Voo SC, Sarmidi MR, et al. Profiling of Centella asiatica (L.) urban extract. Malaysian J Anal Sci 2008;12:322–7.
Lu L, Ying K, Wei S, et al. Asiaticoside induction for cell-cycle progression, proliferation and collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. Int J Dermatol 2004;43:801–7.
Yulianti L, Mardliyati E, Brahmono K, et al. Asiaticoside induces cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. Univ Med 2015;34.:96-103.
Yulianti L, Brahmono K, Mardliyanti E, et al. Effects of Centella asiatica ethanolic extract encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles on proliferation activity of skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, type I and III collagen synthesis and aquaporin 3 expression in vitro. J Pharm Biomed Sci 2016;6:315-27.
Phaechamud T, Yodkhum K, Charoenteeraboon J, et al. Chitosan-aluminum monostearate composite sponge dressing containing asiaticoside for wound healing and angiogenesis promotion in chronic wound. Mat Sci Eng C-Mater 2015;50:210-25.
Pereda MCV, Dieamant GC, Eberlin S, et al. Effect of green Coffea arabica L. seed oil on extracellular matrix components and water-channel expression in in vitro and ex vivo human skin models. J Cosmet Dermatol 2009;8:56–62.
Pereda MCV, Dieamant GC, Eberlin S, et al. Expression of differential genes involved in the maintenance of water balance in human skin by Piptadenia colubrina extract. J Cosmet Dermatol 2010;9:35–43.
Perez C, Dumont S, Cattuzzo L. Cosmetogenomics decodes hydrating action in cells. Personal Care 2013:6:79-82.
Verdier-Sevrain S, Bonte F. Skin hydration: A review on its molecular mechanisms. J Cosmet Dermatol 2007;6:75-82
Li J, Tang H, Hu X, Chen M, et al. Aquaporin 3 gene and protein expression in sun-protected human skin decreases with skin ageing. Aus J Dermatol 2010;51:106–12.
Boury-Jamot M, Daraspe J, Bonte F, et al. Skin aquaporins: function in hydration, wound healing, and skin epidermis homeostasis. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2009;190:205-17.
Hara-Chikuma M, Verkman AS. Roles of aquaporin-3 in the epidermis. J Invest Dermatol 2008;128:2145–51.
Hara-Chikuma M, Verkman AS. Aquaporin 3 facilitates epidermal cell migration and proliferation during wound healing. J Mol Med 2007;86:221–31.
Yulianti L, Brahmono K, Mardliyanti E, et al. Proceeding ICMTA. In silico molecular modeling and docking studies of aquaporin-3 with active compounds of Centella asiatica. Jakarta: ICMTA; 2013.
Bellemere G, Von Stetten O, Oddos T. Retinoic acid increases aquaporin 3 expression in normal human skin. J Invest Dermatol 2008;128:542-8.