Family support is not a risk factor of negative self-esteem in HIV/AIDS women

Main Article Content

Jean Valeria
Surilena Surilena
Yanto Budiman
Samsuridjal Djauzi
Haridana Indah


BACKGROUND Women with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) have a complex psychosocial burden and a tendency to negative self-esteem, possibly resulting in mental and emotional problems. They need family support to deal with the HIV/AIDS infection and its psychosocial burden. The purpose of this study was to determine chacteristics of family support, self-esteem, and depression of WLWHA and the relationship between family support and self-esteem and depression. METHOD This was a cross-sectional study of 99 WLWHA infected through their husbands/partners, with no history of drug abuse. The data was taken by a consecutive sampling of two proportions test at Dharmais Cancer Hospital from November 2013 – January 2014. The instruments comprised a demographic questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and a family support questionnaire. The data was analyzed by binary logistic regression. RESULTS There were 99 respondents with mean age of 36 years, of whom 44.4% were high school graduates, 54.5% unemployed, and 91.9% had HIV/ AIDS for more than a year. Binary logistic regression analysis showed no significant relationship between family support and self-esteem (p=0.700) and depression (p=0.396). Good family support has a protective effect of 1.3 times (OR=0.772; 95%CI: 0.138-3.770) towards increasing self-esteem, whereas poor family support increases the risk of depression 1.5 times (OR=1.477; 95%CI: 0.598-3.645) in WLWHA infected with HIV/AIDS from their husband/partner. CONCLUSIONS Good family support tend to have a protective effect towards increasing self-esteem, whereas poor family support increases the risk of depression in WLWHA infected with HIV/AIDS from their husband/partner.

Article Details

How to Cite
Valeria, J., Surilena, S., Budiman, Y., Djauzi, S., & Indah, H. (2015). Family support is not a risk factor of negative self-esteem in HIV/AIDS women. Universa Medicina, 34(1), 61–67.
Review Article


Komisi Penanggulangan AIDS. Strategi dan rencana aksi nasional penanggulangan HIV dan AIDS tahun 2010-2014. Jakarta: Komisi Penanggulangan AIDS;2010.

United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Global AIDS response: country progress report. Reporting period January 2010 to December 2011. Geneva: United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS; 2011.

Djoerban Z. Problematika perempuan terinfeksi HIV. Support 2010;80:11-4.

World Health Organization. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in adult and adolescents towards universal access.Recommendations for a public health approach. 2010, Revision. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.

Pearson CR, Micek MA, Pfeiffer J, et al. One year after ART initiation: psychosocial factors associated with stigma among HIV-positive Mozambicans. AIDS Behav 2009;13:1189-96.

Schweitzer AM, Mizwa MB, Ross MW. Psychosocial aspects of HIV/AIDS adults. Baylor Int Ped AIDS Initiative 2010;334-49.

Cornet M. Overcoming barriers in ART adherence: the role of social support and counselling in antiretroviral treatment in

Kayunga, Uganda. Clin Infect Dis 2009;33:705–10.

Handajani YS, Djoerban Z, Irawan H. Quality of life people living with HIV/AIDS: out patient in Kramat 128 Hospital, Jakarta. Acta Med Indones 2013;10:122-7.

Mazzafero KE, Murray PZ. Depression, stress, and social support as predictors of HIV/AIDS in young women. J Adolesc Health 2009;39:337-44.

Surilena. Efek terapi pendekatan perilaku emosi rasional pada kepatuhan pengobatan anti retroviral perempuan yang terinfeksi HIV/AIDS [disertasi]. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia; 2012.

Li L, Wu S, Wu Z, et al. Understanding family support for people living with HIV/AIDS in Yunnan, China. AIDS Behav 2006;10:509-17.

Tamplin A, Goodyer IM. Family functioning in adolescents at high and low risk for major depressive disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;10:170-9.

Ramiro MT, Teva I, Bermúdez MP, et al. Social support, self-esteem and depression: relationship with risk for sexually transmitted infections/HIV transmission. Int J Clin Health Psychol 2013;13:181-8.

Asante KO. Social support and the psychological well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Afr J Psychiatry 2012;15:341-5.

Rosenberg J. HIV stigma is linked to lack of HIVrelated knowledge. Int Perspec Sexual Reprod Health 2009;35:112.

Capitao CG, Finotelli I Jr, de Macena CS. Evaluation of depression and anxiety on HIV/AIDS in-patient. J AIDS HIV Res 2011;3:240-6.

Rotheram-Borus MJ, Stein JA, Jiraphongsa C, et al. Benefits of family and social relationships for Thai parents living with HIV. Prev Sci 2010;11:298–307.

Palmer AK, Duncan KC, Ayalew B, et al. “The way I see it”: the effect of stigma and depression on self-perceived body image among HIVpositive individuals on treatment in British

Columbia, Canada. AIDS Care 2011;23:1456-66. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2011.565021.

Douaihy R. The association between self-esteem and anxiety. Am J Psychiatry 2005;1:135-9.

Mascolini M. More depression in HIV+ women than men, regardless of ART, in 15-country Study. 2nd International Workshop on HIV & Women. Maryland; 2012.

Jones MJ, Weissmam M. Anxiety greatly impairs treatment adherence. Am J Psychiatry 2008;127:118-22.

Holmes BD, Marzillier EBC, Ulman G,et al. Self care, psychological distress and HIV diseases. J Assoc Nurse AIDS Care 2007;4:1514-20.

Unnikrishnan B, Jagannath V, Ramapuram JT, et al. Study of depression and it’s associated factors among women living with HIV/AIDS in coastal South India. Retrovirol 2012;9 Suppl

:S137. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-9-S1-P137.

Hartzell JD, Janke IE, Weintrob AC. Impact of depression on HIV outcomes in the HAART era. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;62:246-55.

Kusuma H. Hubungan antara depresi dan dukungan keluarga dengan kualitas hidup pasien HIV/AIDS yang menjalani perawatan di RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo [tesis]. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia; 2010.

Ria HT, Wirawan HE. Gambaran stres perempuan yang terinfeksi HIV dalam menjalani perannya berumah tangga. Arkhe 2007;12:126-32.