ISSN 2407-2230 | E-ISSN 1907-3062 | Universa Medicina content is searchable on DOAJ, Google Scholar, and OAI

Antifungal activity of neem leaf ethanol extract on Aspergillus flavus

Ayly Margaret, Hanna Yolanda, Wibisono Lies K
Submission date: Wednesday, 02 December 2015
Published date: Monday, 14 December 2015
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18051/UnivMed.2013.v32.80-85

Abstract


BACKGROUND
Aspergillosis is an infectious disease due to inhalation of Aspergillus spores.
Drug resistance to aspergillosis has been reported since 14 years ago. Therefore,
alternative treatment using herbals began to attract the attention of the medical
profession and the community, because herbals are relatively safe and have
minimal side effects. Neem (Azadirachta indica) is an herb with broad spectrum
biological activity, but studies on the antifungal activity of neem leaves are
lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves
on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus).
METHODS
This was a laboratory experimental study using A. flavus samples obtained from
bronchial washing specimens of inpatients. Neem leaf extract in ethanol (NLE)
was prepared in various concentrations. Aspergillus. flavus antifungal activity
of NLE were assessed by disc diffusion (using NLE at 1.0; 0.75; 0.50; 0.25 g/dL)
and macrodilution (using NLE at 1.0; 0.75; 0.5; 0.25; 0.125 g/dL). Ketoconazole
0.1 g/dL was used as antifungal positive control. Disc diffusion and macrodilution
were conducted using Sabouraud dextrose agar and broth, to measure inhibition
zone diameter and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. Statistical
analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test from SPSS 15.
RESULTS
There were significant differences in inhibition zone diameter (p = 0.034) between
A. flavus samples exposed to NLE (1 g/dL) and the control group exposed to
ketoconazole (0.1 g/dL). The MIC of NLE against A. flavus was 0.5 g/dL.
CONCLUSIONS
Neem leaf ethanol extract has antifungal activity against A.flavus in vitro.

Keywords


A. flavus; neem; Azadirachta indica; antifungal

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bansod S, Rai M. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Indian medicinal plants against human pathogenic aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger. World J Med Sci 2008;3:81-8.

Subapriya R, Nagini S. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review. Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents 2005:5:149-56.

Thompson GR, Patterson TF. Pulmonary aspergillosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2008;29:103-10.

Hedayati MT, Pasqualotto AC, Warn PA, Bowyer P, Denning DW. Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer. Microbiol 2007;153:1677-92.

Rasmin M, Syarifuddin PK, Setiawati A, Soemitro D, Hamid A. Sistem pernapasan. Dalam: Budimulyati U, Bramono K, Menaldi SL,editor. Konsensus FKUI dan PMKI tentang tatalaksana

mikosis sistemik. Jakarta: Balai Penerbit FKUI; 2001.p.5-16.

Paul D, Kevin K. Pulmonary aspergillosis: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapy. Brit J Biomedical Sci 2001;58:197-205.

Ofusori DA, Falana BA, Ofusori AE, Abayomi TA, Ajayi SA, Ojo GB. Gastroprotective effect of aqueous extract of Neem on induced gastric lesion in rats. Int J Biol Med Res 2010;1:219-22.

Chattopadhyay RR, Bandyopadhyay M. Effect of azadirachta leaf extract on serum lipid profile changes in normal and streptozocin induced diabetic rats. Afr J Biomed Res 005;8:101-4.

Mondali NK, Mojumdar A, Chatterje SK, Banerjee A, Datta JK, Gupta S. Antifungal activities and chemical characterization of neem leaf extracts on the growth of some selected fungal species in vitro culture medium. J Appl Sci Environ Manage

;13:49-53.

Niharika A, Aquicio JM, Anand A. Antifungal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves extract to treat hair dandruff. E-ISRJ 2010;2:244-52.

Cappuccino JG, Sherman N. Microbiology a laboratory manual. New York: Benjamin Cummings;2002.

Klancnik A, Piskernik S, Jersek B, Mozina SS. Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts. J Microbiol Methods 2010;81:121-6.

Mahmoud DA, Hassanein NM, Youssef KA, Abou Zeid MA. Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens. Braz J Microbiol 2011;42:1007-16.

Nwachukwu EO, Umechuruba C.I. Antifungal activities of some leaf extracts on seed-borne fungi of African yam bean seeds, seed germination and seedling emergence. J Appl Sci Environ Mgt 2001;5:29-31.

Da Costa CL, Geraldo MRF, Arrotéia CC, Kemmelmeier C. In vitro activity of neem oil [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae)] on Aspergillus flavus growth, sporulation,viability of spores, morphology and aflatoxins B1 and B2 production. Adv Biosci Biotechnol 2010;1:292-99.

Gujar J, Talwankar D. Antifungal potential of crude plant extract on some pathogenic fungi. WJST 2012;2:58-62.

Rai S, Padhye S, Narula N. In vitro sensitivity of otomycotic agents against synthetic antifungals and natural herbs. RRJMB 2013;2:1-3.

Abyaneh MR, Allameh A, Tiraihi T, Shams-Ghahfarokhi M, Ghorbanian M. Morphological alterations in toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus exposed to neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf and

seed aqueos extracts. Mycopathologia 2005;159:565-70.

Kustimur S, Kalkanci A, Mansuroglu H, Senel K. Evaluation of the disc diffusion method with a comparison study for fluconazole susceptibility of Candida strains. Chinese Med J 2003;116:633-

Kumar R, Shrivastava SK, Chakraborti A. Comparison of broth dilution and disc diffusion method for the antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus flavus. Am J Biomed Sci 2010;2:202-8.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Universa Medicina



Creative Commons License
Universa Medicina by Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://univmed.org/ejurnal/index.php/medicina/