ISSN 2407-2230 | E-ISSN 1907-3062 | Universa Medicina content is searchable on DOAJ, Google Scholar, and OAI

Centella asiatica ethanol extract increases hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor in male Wistar rats

Astri Handayani, Sophie Yolanda, Ria Kodariah
Submission date: Thursday, 21 June 2018
Published date: Friday, 10 August 2018
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18051/UnivMed.2018.v37.143-149

Abstract


Background
Synaptic plasticity, which primarily takes place in the hippocampus, is the molecular basis of long- term memory formation. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, plays a significant role in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. When BDNF is released, it binds to its receptor and activates various intracellular signal transduction pathways leading to synaptic plasticity. Several methods to improve memory function in humans have been studied, one of which is the use of herbal compounds, such as Centella asiatica (CeA), an herbaceous plant that has been used for improving memory. This study aims to examine the effects of CeA ethanol extract on BDNF protein expression in the CA1 hippocampal region in adult male rats.

Methods
A randomized experimental design was performed involving 18 adult male Wistar rats. The rats were randomized into three groups: one control/distilled water group and two groups treated with doses of CeA ethanol extract of 300 mg/kgBW (CeA300) and 600 mg/kgBW (CeA600), respectively. CeA ethanol extract was administered orally for 28 consecutive days with weekly weight-adjusted dose. After 28 days, the rats were decapitated, and the hippocampus was isolated from the brain. BDNF protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and continued with post-hoc analysis.

Results
There was a significant increase in BDNF protein expression in the CeA600 group compared to the control group (p<0.001).

Conclusion
Administration of CeA ethanol extract increased BDNF protein expression in the CA1 hippocampal region of adult male rats.

Keywords


BDNF; Centella asiatica; hippocampus; synaptic plasticity; adult male rats

Full Text:

PDF

References


Takeuchi T, Duszkiewicz AJ, Morris RGM. The synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis: encoding, storage and persistence. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 2013;369:20130288. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0288.

Sari DCR, Aswin S, Susilowati R, et al. Ethanol extracts of Centella asiatica leaf improves memory performance in rats after chronic stress via reducing nitric oxide and increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration. GSTF J Psychol 2014;1:9. doi: 10.7603/s40790-014-0009-0.

Amin SN, Younan SM, Youssef MF, et al. A histological and functional study on hippocampal formation of normal and diabetic rats. F1000Research 2013;2:151. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.2-151.v1.

Cunha C, Brambilla R, Thomas KL. A simple role for BDNF in learning and memory? Front Mol Neurosci 2010;3:1-14. doi: 10.3389/neuro.02. 001.2010.

Choo M, Miyazaki T, Yamazaki M, et al. Retrograde BDNF to TrkB signaling promotes synapse elimination in the developing cerebellum. Nat Commun 2017;8:195. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00260-w.

Guo W, Ji Y, Wang S, et al. Neuronal activity alters BDNF-TrkB signaling kinetics and downstream functions. J Cell Sci 2014;127(Pt 10):2249-60. doi: 10.1242/jcs.139964.

Bathina S, Das UN. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its clinical implications. Arch Med Sci 2015;11:1164-78. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2015.56342.

Sleiman SF, Henry J, Al-Haddad R, et al. Exercise promotes the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through the action of the ketone body â-hydroxybutyrate. Elife 2016; 5:e15092. doi: 10.7554/eLife.15092.

Chiu J, Chen F, Tsai Y, et al. Effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its interaction with human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and endothelial HUVECs. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017;17:401. doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1909-7.

Orhan IE. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban: from traditional medicine to modern medicine with neuroprotective potential. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2012. Article ID 946259, 8 pages. doi: 10.1155/2012/946259.

Haleagrahara N, Ponnusamy K. Neuroprotective effect of Centella asiatica extract (CAE) on experimentally induced parkinsonism in aged Sprague-Dawley rats. J Toxicol Sci 2010;35:41-7. https://doi.org/10.2131/jts.35.41.

Kamelia E, Miko H, Karo MB, et al. The effect of leaf extract of Centella asiatica on neurogenesis and Bdnf level in hippocampus cell culture in young mice. Clin Neurol Neurosci 2017;1:14-9. doi: 10.11648/j.cnn.20170101.14.

Khotimah H, Sumitro SB, Mulyohadi A. Standardized Centella asiatica increased brain derived neurotrophic factor and decreased apoptosis of dopaminergic neuron in rotenone induced zebrafish. GSTF J Psychol 2015;2:8-15. doi: 10.5176/2345-7872.

Lokanathan Y, Omar N, Ahmad Puzi NN, et al. Recent updates in neuroprotective and neuroregenerative potential of Centella asiatica. Malaysian J Med Sci 2016;23:4-14.

Krishnamurthy RG, Senut M, Zemke D, et al. Asiatic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene from Centella asiatica, is neuroprotective in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci Res 2009; 87:2541–50. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.22071.

Rao KGM, Rao SM, Rao SG. Centella asiatica (linn) induced behavioural changes during growth spurt period in neonatal rats. Neuroanatomy 2005;4:18-23.

Rao KGM, Rao SM, Rao SG. Centella asiatica leaf extract treatment during the growth spurt period enhances hippocampal CA3 neuronal dendritic arborization in rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2006;3:349-57. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nel024.

Hemamalini, Rao MS. Anti stress effect of Centella asiatica leaf extract on hippocampal CA3 neurons – a quantitative study. Int J Pharmacol Clin Sci 2013;2:25-32.

Gohil KJ, Patel JA, Gajjar AK. Pharmacological review on Centella asiatica: a potential herbal cure-all. Indian J Pharm Sci 2010;72: 546–56. doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.78519.

Gray NE, Harris CJ, Quinn JF, et al. Centella asiatica modulates antioxidant and mitochondrial pathways and improves cognitive function in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2016;180:78-86. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.01.013.

Loganathan C, Thayumanavan P. Asiatic acid prevents the quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. Metab Brain Dis 2018;33:151-9. doi: 10.1007/s11011-017-0143-9.

Mirza I, Riyadi H, Khomsan A, et al. The effect of ethanol extract of gotu kola leaf (Centella asiatica (L.) Urban) on hematological profile, activities, and cognitive function. J Kedokt Hewan 2013;7: 137-40.

Andreollo NA, Santos EF, Araujo MR, et al. Rat’s age versus human’s age: what is the relationship? Arq Bras Cir Dig 2012;25:49-51. doi: 10.1590/S0102 - 67202012000100011.

Arifin WN, Zahiruddin WM. Sample size calculation in animal studies using resource equation approach. Malays J Med Sci 2017;24: 101-5. doi: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.5.11.

Leal G, Afonso PM, Salazar IL, et al. Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by BDNF. Brain Res 2015;1621:82-101. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014. 10.019.

Panja D, Bramham CR. BDNF mechanisms in late LTP formation: a synthesis and breakdown. Neuropharmacology 2014;76 Pt C:664-76. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.06.024.

Leal G, Comprido D, Duarte CB. BDNF-induced local protein synthesis and synaptic plasticity. Neuropharmacology 2014;76 Pt C:639-56. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.04.005.

Soumyanath A, Zhong YP, Henson E, et al. Centella asiatica extract improves behavioral deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease: investigation of a possible mechanism of action. Int J Alzheimer’s Dis 2012, Article ID 381974, 9 pages. doi: 10.1155/2012/381974.

Jared SR. Enhancement of memory in rats with Centella asiatica. Biomed Res 2010;21:429-32.

Subathra M, Shila S, Devi MA, et al. Emerging role of Centella asiatica in improving age-related neurological antioxidant status. Exp Gerontol 2005;40:707-15. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2005.06.001.

Nurlaily A, Noor Baitee AR, Musalmah M. Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban and its active compounds, asiaticoside and madecassoside. Med Heal 2012;7:62-72.

Vauzour D, Vafeiadou K, Rodriguez-Mateor A, et al. The neuroprotective potential of flavonoids: a multiplicity of effects. Genes Nutr 2008;3:115-26. doi: 10.1007/s12263-008-0091-4.

Spencer JPE. The interactions of flavonoids within neuronal signalling pathways. Genes Nutr 2007;2:257-73. doi: 10.1007/s12263-007-0056-z.

Spencer JPE. Flavonoids: modulators of brain function? Br J Nutr 2008;99:60-77. doi: 10.1017/S0007114508965776.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Universa Medicina

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
Universa Medicina by Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://univmed.org/ejurnal/index.php/medicina/