ISSN 2407-2230 | E-ISSN 1907-3062 | Universa Medicina content is searchable on DOAJ, Google Scholar, and OAI

Haemostatic properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts using Wistar rat model

Lucy Omokhegbe Matthew, Evarista Odaburhine Osime
Submission date: Wednesday, 21 November 2018
Published date: Wednesday, 10 July 2019
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18051/UnivMed.2019.v38.124-131

Abstract


BACKGROUND
The leaves of African plants are widely employed in Nigeria to control bleeding from wounds. This work is aimed at evaluating the haemostatic effects of Vernonia amygdalina (VA/bitter leaf) and Chromolaena odorata (CO/sunflower) leaves on some haemostatic parameters.

METHODS
A laboratory study of experimental design was conducted involving 35 Wistar rats that were randomized into seven groups. Groups 1 and 2 received leaf extracts of VA at concentrations of 150 and 250mg/kg BW, respectively; groups 3 and 4 received leaf extracts of CO at 150 and 250mg/kg BW; groups 5 and 6 received combined leaf extracts of VA and CO at 150 and 250mg/kg BW, respectively, for 30 days. The last group 7 as control group received only water. Parameters investigated were clotting time (CT), fibrinogen concentration, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time test (APTT), factor VII, protein C and D – dimer.

Results
There was a significant reduction in CT, fibrinogen concentration and PT in the intervention groups compared to controls (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in APTT, factor VII and protein C in the intervention groups compared to the controls (p>0.05). D-dimer levels were observed to increase significantly in rats treated with 150mg/kg BW of VA and 150mg/kgBW of the combined leaf extracts (VA/CO) compared to the controls (p<0.05).

Conclusion
The VA and CO extracts reduced CT, PT, fibrinogen concentrations and increased D-dimer levels in rats. This study suggests the possible incorporation of the leave extracts of VA and CO in bleeding diathesis as well as in coagulation studies.

Keywords


Haemostatsis, Haemostatic parameter, Vernonia amygdalina, Chromolaena odorata.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Schiller AM, Howard JT, Convertion VA. The physiology of blood loss and shock: new insights from a human laboratory model of hemorrhage. Exp Biol Med 2017;242:874-83. doi: 10.1177/1535370217694099.

Aleman MM, Walton BC, Byrnes JR, et al. Fibrinogen and red blood cells in venous thrombosis. Thromb Res 2014;133:538-40. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2014.03.017.

Yun S, Sim E, Goh R, et al. Platelet activation: the mechanisms and potential biomarkers. Biomed Res Int 2016;2016:9060143. doi: 10.1155/2016/9060143.

Kadiri O, Olawoye B. Vernonia amygdalina: an underutilized vegetable with nutraceutical potentials – a review. Turk J Agric Food Sci Technol 2016;4:763-8.

Audu SA, Taiwo AE, Ojuolape AR, et al. A study review of documented phytochemistry of Vernonia amygdalina (Family Asteraceae) as the basis for pharmacologic activity of plant extract. J Natural Sci Res 2012;2:1-8.

Shokunbi OS, Anionwu OA, Sonuga OS, et al. Effect of post-harvest processing on the nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions of Vernonia amygdalina leaf. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10: 10980-85. doi: 10.5897/AJB11.1532.

Krausi I, Tobin G. Discovery, development of natural products in using old solutions to new problems. In: Kulka M,editor.Natural drug discovery in the 21 century. 2nd ed. London, UK: Intech Open; 2013.p.3-36.

Lobo VC, Phatak N, Chandra N. Acute toxicity studies of some Indian medicinal plants. PHCOG J 2010;2:207-10.

Pandith H, Zhang X, Liggett J, et al. Hemostatic and wound healing properties of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract. ISRN Dermatology 2013; Article ID 168269, 8 pages. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/168269.

Abay M, Lucantoni L, Dahiya N, et al. Plasmodium transmission blocking activities of Vernonia amygdalina extracts and isolated compounds. Malar J 2015;14:288. doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0812-2.

Chinedu E, Arome D, Ameh FS. A new method for determining acute toxicity in animal models. Toxicol Int 2013;20: 224–6. doi: 10.4103/0971-6580.121674.

Oguwike FN, Offor CC, Onubeze DPM, et al. Evaluation of activities of Bitterleaf (Vernonia Amygdalina) extract on haemostatic and biochemical profile of induced male diabetic albino rats. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2013;11:60-4.

Sofowora A, Ogunbodede E, Onayade A. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2013;10:210-29. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i5.2.

Olorunfemi EA, Arnold IC, Igbo C, et al. Effects of the leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on the pharmacokinetics of dihydroartemisinin in rat. Pharmacologia 2012;3:713-8. doi: 10.5567/pharmacologia.2012.713.718

Charan J, Kantharia ND. How to calculate sample size in animal studies? J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2013;4:303–6. doi: 10.4103/0976-500X.119726.

Bain BJ, Bates I, Laffan M. Dacie and Lewis practical haematology. 12th ed. Elsevier Ltd.;2016.

Alaraa OR, Abdurahman NH, Mudalip SKA, et al. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Vernonia amygdalina: a review. J Chem Eng Ind Biotechnol 2017;2:80-96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15282/JCEIB-V2-07.29/9/2017/2.2.

Sirinthipaporn A, Jiraungkoorskul W. Wound healing property: review of siam weed, Chromolaena odorata. Pharmacogn Rev 2017;11:35–8. doi: 10.4103/phrev.phrev_53_16.

Yeap S, Ho W, Beh BK, et al. Vernonia amygdalina, an enthnoveterinary and ethnomedical used green vegetable with multiple bioactivites. J Med Plants Res 2010;4:2787-812.

Asomugha RN, Okafor PN, Ijeh II, et al. Hepatic effects of aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata in male Wistar albino rats. Pharmacol OL 2014;1:127-36.

Owolabi MS, Ogundajo A, Yusuf KO, et al. Chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oil of Chromolaena odorata from Nigeria. Rec Nat Prod 2010;4:72-8.

Lippi G, Bonfanti L, Saccenti C, et al. Causes of elevated D-dimer in patients admitted to a large urban emergency department. Eur J Intern Med 2014;25:45-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2013.07.012.

Lyumugabe F, Uyisenga JP, Bayingana C, et al. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemicals analysis of Vernonia aemulans, Vernonia amygdalina, Lantana camara and Markhamia lutea leaves as natural beer preservatives. Am J Food Technol 2017;12:35-42. doi: 10.3923/ajft.2017. 35.42.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Universa Medicina

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
Universa Medicina by Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://univmed.org/ejurnal/index.php/medicina/