Single bulb garlic oil improves interleukin-6 via decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high-fat diet male mice

Main Article Content

Riza Rahayu Ilmawati
Abdul Gofur
Sri Rahayu Lestari


High-fat diet (HFD) is highly responsible for the development of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) then trigger macrophage activation to secrete interleukin-6 (IL-6). Single bulb garlic or in Indonesian called bawang lanang is traditional medicine that possesses strong antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of single bulb garlic oil (SBGO) on ROS, IL-6, and lymphocyte density in HFD-fed male mice.

This was an experimental study on 24 male mice randomly subdivided into 6 groups: one group was fed a normal diet, whereas the remaining five groups were fed HFD for 45 days and were then treated with single bulb garlic oil 0 mg/kg, simvastatin 26 mg/kg BW, single bulb garlic oil 12.5 mg/kg BW, 25 mg/kg BW, and 50 mg/kg BW respectively for the next 35 days. At the end of treatment, the mice were dissected for collection of (i) serum in order to measure ROS and IL-6 levels using ELISA, (ii) aortas to measure IL-6 expression using immunohistochemistry-fluorescence (IHC-F) and to obtain lymphocytes from bone marrow and spleen which were then counted using a light microscope.

Our results indicated that SBGO decreased the ROS level, IL-6 level, IL-6 expression, and lymphocyte density in HFD mice. SBGO 12.5 mg/kg BW is the optimum dose in our study to reduce inflammation in HFD male mice.

SBGO is useful to reduce inflammation and improve antioxidant imbalance, thus might be a potential antiatherogenic agent.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ilmawati, R. R., Gofur, A., & Lestari, S. R. (2019). Single bulb garlic oil improves interleukin-6 via decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high-fat diet male mice. Universa Medicina, 38(2), 100–107.
Original Articles
Author Biographies

Riza Rahayu Ilmawati, Master Program of Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Malang

Abdul Gofur, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Malang

Sri Rahayu Lestari, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Malang

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Malang


Wu MY, Li CJ, Hou MF, et al. New insights into the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Int J Mol Sci 2017;18:pii:E2034. doi: 10.3390/ijms18102034.

Libby P. History of discovery: inflammation in atherosclerosis. Arter Thromb Vasc Biol 2012;32:2045–51. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.108.179705.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI Mari menuju masa muda sehat, hari tua nikmat tanpa PTM dengan perilaku cerdik. Jakarta : Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2014.

Spring B, Moller AC, Colangelo LA, et al. Healthy lifestyle change and subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study. Circulation 2014;130:10–7. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005445.

Pizzino G, Irrera N, Cucinotta M, et al. Oxidative stress: harms and benefits for human health. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017; 8416763. doi: 10.1155/2017/8416763.

Tsoupras A, Lordan R, Zabetakis I. Inflammation, not cholesterol, is a cause of chronic disease. Nutrients 2018;10 :pii: E604. doi: 10.3390/nu10050604.

Duque GA, Descoteaux A. Macrophage cytokines: involvement in immunity and infectious diseases. Front Immunol 2014;5:1–12. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00491.

Bardoel BW, Kenny EF, Sollberger G, et al. The balancing act of neutrophils. Cell Host Microbe 2014;15:526–36. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2014.04.011.

Thompson PD, Panza G, Zaleski A, et al. Statin-associated side effects. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;67:2395–410. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.02.071.

Dalal I, Sengupta M, Paul S, et al. Comparative study of the effect of atorvastatin and garlic extract in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013;2:397. doi: 10.5455/2319-2003.ijbcp20130810.

Padhar B, Dave AR, Chandola HM, et al. Comparative analytical study of single-bulb and multi-bulb garlic. Int J Ayu Alt Med 2014;2:86–91.

Naji KM, Al-Shaibani ES, Alhadi FA, et al. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of single clove garlic against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rabbits. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017;17:411. doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1916-8.

Soto VC, González RE, Sance MM, et al. Organosulfur and phenolic content of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) and its relationship with antioxidant activity. Acta Hortic 2016;1143:277–90. doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1143.39.

Deasy A, Dewi R, Kusnadi J, et al. Comparison of the main bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity from garlic water-soluble and garlic oil. KNE Life Sci 2017;2017:20–34. doi: 10.18502/kls.v3i5.975.

Chen X, Pang S, Lin J, et al. Allicin prevents oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced endothelial cell injury by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress pathway. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016;16:1–6. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1126-9.

Arreola R, Quintero-Fabián S, López-Roa R, et al. Immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic compounds: discovery service for Endeavour College of Natural Health Library. J Immunol Res 2015;401630. doi: 10.1155/2015/401630.

Lestari SR, Rifa’i M. Regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory cytokine profile of mice fed a high-fat diet after single-bulb garlic (Allium sativum L.) oil treatment. Trop J Pharm Res 2018;17:2157–62. doi: 10.22146/jtbb.33498.

Gofur A, Witjoro A, Ningtiyas EW, et al. The ameliorative effect of black soybean and purple sweet potato to improve sperm quality through suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in type 2 diabetes mellitus rat (Rattus novergicus). Science Asia 2018;44:303–10. doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2018.44.303.

Safitri YD, Atho’illah MF, Nur’aini FD, et al. The effects of elicited soybean (Glycine max) extract on hematopoietic cells of high fat-fructose diet Balb/C mice model. Jordan J Biol Sci 2018;11:241–6.

Atho’illah MF, Safitri YD, Nur’aini FD, et al. Soybean extract suppresses B cell activation through TLR3/TLR4 in high fat-high fructose diet mice. Turkish J Immunol 2018;6:95–103. doi: 10.25002/tji.2018.866.

Dwijayanti DR, Djati MS, Rifa’i M. The role of VipAlbumin® as an immunostimulatory agent for controlling homeostasis and proliferation of lymphoid cells. Cent Eur J Immunol 2016;41:31–8. doi: 10.5114/ceji.2016.58814.

Basu C, Sur R. S-Allyl cysteine alleviates hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury and apoptosis through upregulation of Akt / Nrf-2 / HO-1 signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. BioMed Res Int 2018. Article ID 3169431, 14 pages.

Badr GM, Al-Mulhim JA. The protective effect of aged garlic extract on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric inflammations in male albino rats. Evid Based Complement Alt Med 2014. Article ID 759642, 9 pages. http://dx.doi,org/10.1155/2014/759642.

Okada Y, Tanaka K, Fujita I, et al. Antiodidant activity of thiosulfinates derived from garlic. Redox Rep 2005;10:96–102. doi: 10.1179/135100005X38851.

Borlinghaus J, Albrecht F, Gruhlke MCH, et al. Allicin: chemistry and biological properties. Molecules 2014;19:12591–618. doi: 10.3390/molecules190812591.

Chang SH, Liu CJ, Kuo CH, et al. Garlic oil alleviates MAPKs- and IL-6-mediated diabetes-related cardiac hypertrophy in STZ-induced DM rats. Evid Based Complement Alt Med 2011:e2011. Article ID 950150, 11 pages. doi: 10.1093/ecam/neq075,

Hamlaoui-gasmi S, Mokni M, Limam N, et al. Grape seed extract mitigates garlic-induced oxidative stress in rat spleen and plasma. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:6076–84. doi: 10.5897/JMPR11.1035.