The role of urine albumin creatinine ratio and serum β2 microglobulin as biomarkers of chronic kidney disease

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Augustine Onovuakpo Eguvbe
Marcellinus Uchechukwu Nwagu
Eshiotseme Sylvester Idogun
Adeyinka Abdulrasaq Akande



Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing burden on individuals and on the healthcare system. The need to identify more sensitive and specific markers of CKD cannot be overemphasized to facilitate detection and appropriate intervention. β2 microglobulin is one of such markers of CKD. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivities and specificities of serum β2 microglobulin and major biochemical markers of CKD, namely creatinine and urine albumin.



This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 124 subjects with CKD and 124 healthy controls. Participants were categorized in two groups : group 1 the CKD based on persistent reduction in GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and group 2 healthy subjects as controls. Blood (serum) samples of participants were analyzed for serum creatinine and serum β2 microglobulin while their urine samples were analyzed for creatinine and albumin. Urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) was calculated from the results of the analyses.



There was a very strong positive correlation of serum β2 microglobulin with serum creatinine (r=0.750; p=0.000) and UACR (r=0.775; p=0.000), respectively. Also, there was a very strong negative correlation between serum β2 microglobulin and eGFR (r=-0.866; p=0.000). UACR had the highest sensitivity and specificity as shown by receiver operating curve characteristics (ROC) analysis.



In CKD, UACR and serum β2 microglobulin had the best diagnostic value. Periodic renal assessment of renal patients is mandatory as they may be affected by hidden renal dysfunction.

Article Details

How to Cite
Eguvbe, A. O., Nwagu, M. U., Idogun, E. S., & Akande, A. A. (2019). The role of urine albumin creatinine ratio and serum β2 microglobulin as biomarkers of chronic kidney disease. Universa Medicina, 38(3), 172–178.
Original Articles
Author Biographies

Augustine Onovuakpo Eguvbe, Edo University, Iyamho

Lecturer, department of Chemical Pathology

Marcellinus Uchechukwu Nwagu, Edo University, Iyamho, Edo State

Associate Professor, Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion

Eshiotseme Sylvester Idogun, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State.

Professor, Department of Chemical Pathology

Adeyinka Abdulrasaq Akande, University of Ilorin, Ilorin.

Professor, Department of Chemical Pathology.


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