Heavy mental workload increase poor sleep quality in informal garment workers
Main Article Content
Sleep is needed by the human body so that the performance of body remains optimal when the body is awake, especially during work. Informal workers often work without clear regulations, with inadequate equipment and poor work environment, and pay little attention to occupational health and safety factors. The existence of large work demands with unclear work system arrangements will certainly result in a mental workload in these workers. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between mental workload and sleep patterns of workers in the informal garment sector.
A cross-sectional study involving 225 informal garment workers was conducted between December 2018 and May 2019. Data collection included respondents’ demographics, job characteristics, measurement of mental burden and disturbances in sleep patterns. The sleep pattern used the PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) instrument and the mental burden used the Rating Scale Mental Effort (RSME). A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data.
The mean sleep quality was 5.40 ± 2.54. Multiple linear regression test found that mental workload correlated significantly with sleep quality of workers (β=0.016, p=0.012).
This study demonstrated that heavy mental workload decreases the quality of sleep in informal garment workers. A good work system management is required so that workers are assigned that portion of the task that is commensurate with their capacity.
The journal allows the authors to hold the copyright without restrictions and allow the authors to retain publishing rights without restrictions.
Yazdi Z, Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K, Loukzadeh Z, Elmizadeh K, Abbasi M. Prevalence of sleep disorders and their impacts on occupational performance: A comparison between shift workers and non-shift workers. Sleep Disorders 2014:1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/870320.
Choi DW, Chun SY, Lee SA, Han KT, Park EC. Association between sleep duration and perceived stress: Salaried worker in circumstances of high workload. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018;15,796:1-11 doi:10.3390/ijerph15040796.
Shockey TM, Wheaton AG. Short sleep duration by occupation group - 29 states, 2013-2014. US Department of Health and Human Service/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR 2017;66:207-13.
Hafner M, Stepanek M, Taylor J, Troxel WM, van Stolket C. Why sleep matters - the economic costs of insufficient sleep: a cross-country comparative analysis. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation; 2016.
Rifa’i FG, Martiana T. Hubungan antara stressor kerja dengan insomnia pada pekerja bergilir bagian central processing area di job P –PEJ Tuban. Indonesian J Occup Safety Health 2014;3:35-45.
Yaylak D, Calýþgan B, Karakas T, et al. Heavy workload of nurses and effects of it on sleep / rested levels. TMSJ 2014; 23-26.
Malekpour F, Mohammadian Y, Malekpour AR, Mohammadpour Y, et al. Assessment of mental workload in nursing by using NASA-TLX. Journal of Urmia Nursing and Midwifery Faculty 2014;11:892-9.
Jansen EC, Peterson KE, O’Brien L, Hershner S, Boolani A. Associations between mental workload and sleep quality in a sample of young adults recruited from a US college town. Behav Sleep Med 2019;20:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15402002.2019.1626728.
Heidarimoghadam R, Saidnia H, Joudaki J, Mohammadi Y, Babamiri M. Does mental workload can lead to musculoskeletal disorders in office workers? Suggest and investigate a path. Cogent Psychol 2019;6:1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2019.1664205.
Yoshioka E, Saijo Y, Kita T, et al. Gender differences in insomnia and the role of paid work and family responsibilities. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2012;47:651-62. DOI: 10.1007/s00127-011.0370-2
Afrianti R, Widyahening IS, Amri Z, Kusumawardhani A. Stresor kerja dan insomnia pada petugas pemadam kebakaran di Jakarta Selatan. J Indon Med Assoc 2011;6:487-92.
Goel N, Abe T, Braun ME, Dinges DF. Cognitive workload and sleep restriction interact to influence sleep homeostatic responses. Sleep 2014;37:1745-56.pii:sp-00060-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4164.
van Laethem M, Beckers DGJ, Geurts SAE, Garefelt J, Hanson LLM, Leineeber C. Perseverative cognition as an explanatory mechanism in the relation between job demands and sleep quality. Int J Behav Med 2018;25:231–42. DOI: 10.1007/s12529-017-9683-y.
Badan Pusat Statistik. Keadaan ketenagakerjaan Indonesia No 42/05/Th.XXI,07. Jakarta: Biro Pusat Statistik;2018.
Han Y, Yuan Y, Zhang L, Fu Y. Sleep disorder status of nurses in general hospitals and its influencing factors. Psychiatr Danub 2016;28: 176–83.
Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res 1989;28:193-213.
Kühnel J, Bledow R, Feuerhahn N. When do you procrastinate? Sleep quality and social sleep lag jointly predict self-regulatory failure at work. J Organ Behav 2016;37:983–1002.
Johnson A, Widyanti A. Cultural influences on the measurement of subjective mental workload. Ergonomics 2011;54:509-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2011.570459.
Härmä M. Psychosocial work characteristics and sleep - a well-known but poorly understood association. Scand J Work Environ Health 2013;39:531-3. Doi.10.5271/sjweh.3389.
Bos JT, Donders NCGM, van der Velden K, van der Gulden JWJ. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study. BMC Research Notes 2013;6:102. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-102.
Arellano JLH, Martínez JAC, Pérez JNS, Alcaraz JLG. Relationship between workload and fatigue among Mexican assembly operators. Int J Phys Med Rehabil 2015,3:1-6. DOI: 10.4172/2329-9096.1000315.
Åkerstedt T, Discacciati A, Habel H, Westerlundz H. Psychosocial work demands and physical workload decrease with ageing in blue collar and white collar workers: a prospective study based on the SLOSH cohort. BMJ Open 2019;9:e030918. Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030918.
Åkerstedt T, Discacciati A, Miley-Åkerstedt A, Westerlundz H. Aging and the change in fatigue and sleep- A longitudinal study across 8 years in three age groups. Front Psychol 2018;9:1-8. Doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00234.
Schlarb AA, Reis D, Schröder A. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, and associations to quality of life among psychotherapists. Sleep Disord 2012;2012:806913. doi: 10.1155/2012/806913.
Gao X, Ge H, Jiang Y, Lian Y, Zhang C, Liu J. Relationship between job stress and 5 –HT2A receptor polymorphisms on self-reported sleep quality in physicians in Urumqi (Xinjiang, China): A cross sectional study. Int J. Environ Res. Public Health 2018;1034:1-15. Doi:10.3390/ijerph 1505103.
Rydstedt LW, Devereux JJ. Psychosocial job strain and sleep quality interaction leading to insufficient recovery. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2013;10:5863-73; doi:10.3390/ijerph 10115863.
Hanson LLM, Leineweber C, Persson V, Hyde M, Heorell T, Westerlund H. Cohort profile: The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Int J Epidemiol 2018;691–2i.doi: 10.1093/ije/dyx260.
Schiller H, Lekander M, Rajaleid K, et al. The impact of reduced worktime on sleep and perceived stress-a group randomized intervention study using diary data. Scand J Work Environ Health 2017;43:109-16. Doi: 10.5271/sjweh.3610.
Ghanbary SA, Ashnagar M, Habibi E, Sadeghi S. Evaluation of rating scale mental effort (RSME) effectiveness for mental workload assessment in nurses. JOHE 2016;5:211-7. DOI:10.18869/acadpub.johe.5.4.211.
Pilz LK, Keller LK, Lenssen D, Roenneberg T. Time to rethink sleep quality: PSQI scores reflect sleep quality on workdays. Sleep J 2018;41:1–8. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsy029.