ISSN 2407-2230 | E-ISSN 1907-3062 | Universa Medicina content is searchable on DOAJ, Google Scholar, and OAI

A retrospective study of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage

Eka J. Wahjoepramono
Submission date: Monday, 29 February 2016
Published date: Monday, 29 February 2016
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18051/UnivMed.2009.v28.69-76

Abstract


Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is a serious disease despite progressing medical knowledge. SICH appears suddenly without warning, unlike ischemic strokes that are often preceded by a transient ischemic attack. Outcome is determined by the initial severity of the bleeding; mortality and morbidity of SICH are high. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of type, location, and outcome of SICH. A retrospective review was conducted on the records of 2042 cases admitted to a private hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang, between 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2008. Analysis was done on type, location, and the final outcome measures by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). The results of the study showed that the most prevalent type of SICH was hypertensive stroke, amounting to 1698 cases (83.1%), and the least commonly encountered type was dural fistula totaling  5 cases (0.3%). SICH due to hypertensive stroke frequently occurred in the basal ganglia (50.8%) comprising the putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus. On average, the outcome at the time of dismissal was good, where 105 cases (88.2%) were GOS 4 and 5. SICH requires prompt and appropriate management. Therefore the signs and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage should be promptly recognized and followed by appropriate ancillary examinations in order to promptly determine the management required, including possible surgical interventions.

Keywords


Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage; hypertensive stroke; arteriovenous malformations; prognosis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Broderick JP, Adams HP Jr, Barsan W, Feinberg W, Feldmann E, Grotta J, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke 1999;30:905-15.

Nicolini A, Ghirarduzzi A, Iorio A, Silingardi M, Malferrari G, Baldi G. Intracranial bleeding: epidemiology and relationships with antithrombotic treatment in 241 cerebral hemorrhages in Reggio Emilia. Haematologica 2002;87:948-56.

Qureshi AI, Thurim S, Broderick JP, Batjer HH. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1450-60.

Fewel ME, Thompson BG, Hoff JT. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a review. Neurosurg Focus 2003;15:1-16.

Greenberg MS. Intracerebral hemorrhage. In: Handbook of neurosurgery 5th ed. New York: Thieme;2001.p.815-24.

Yukihiko Y, Shigekazu T, Ryuichi T, Tetsuo K, Osamu S, Takashi M. Liver dysfunction in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 1994;35:592-6.

Misbach J. Epidemiology of stroke in ASEAN countries. Neurol J Southeast Asia 1997;2:95-6.

Broderick J, Connolly S, Feldmann E, Hanley D, Kase C, Krieger D, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults 2007 update. Stroke 2007; 38:2001-23.

Greenberg MS. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysms. In: Handbook of Neurosurgery 5th ed. New York: Thieme;2001.p.754-803.

Jennett B, Bond M. Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage: a practical scale. Lancet 1975; 1:480–4.

Choi SC, Clifton GL, Marmarou A, Miller ER. Misclassification and treatment effect on primary outcome measures in clinical trials of severe neurotrauma. J Neurotrauma 2002;19:17–22.

Hallevy C, Ifergane G, Kordysh E, Herishanu Y. Spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage: criteria for short-term functional outcome prediction. J Neurol 2002;249:1704–9.

Berge E, Barer D. Could stroke trails be missing important treatment effects. Cerebrovas Dis 2002; 13:73-5.

Siddique SM, Mandalow AD. Surgical treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage. Br Med Bull 2000;56; 446-56.

Quereshi AI, Mohammad YM. A prospective multicentric study to evaluate the feasibility and safety of aggressive antihypertensive treatment in patients with acute intra cerebral hemorrhage. J Intensive Care Med 2005;20:34-42

Van Beijnum J, Lovelock CE, Cordonnier C, Rothwell PM, Klijn CJK , Salman RA and on behalf of the SIVMS Steering Committee and the Oxford Vascular Study. Outcome after spontaneous and arteriovenous malformation-related intracerebral haemorrhage: population-based studies. Brain 2009;132:537-43.

Fewel ME, Thompson Jr BG, Hoff JT. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a review. Neurosurg Focus 2003;15:E1.

Sturgeon JD, Folsom AR, Longstreth Jr WT, Shahar E, Rosamond WD, Cushman M. Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage in a pooled prospective study. Stroke 2007;38:2718-25.

Ariesen MJ, Claus SP, Rinkel GJE, A. Algra A. Risk Factors for Intracerebral hemorrhage in the general population : a systematic review. Stroke 2003;34: 2060-6.

Suh I, Jee SH, Kim HC, Nam CM, Kim IS, Appel LJ. Low serum cholesterol and haemorrhagic stroke in men: Korea Medical Insurance Corporation Study. Lancet 2001;357:922–5.

Woodward M, Huxley H, Lam TH, Barzi F, Lawes CM, Ueshima H. A comparison of the associations between risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Asia and Australasia. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2005;12:484–91.

Xavier AR, Qureshi AI, Kirmani JF, Yahia AM, Bakshi R. Neuroimaging of stroke: a review. South Med J 2003;96:367-79.

Godoy DA, Piòero G, Di Napoli M. Predicting mortality in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: can modification to original score improve the prediction? Stroke 2006;37:1038-44.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Universa Medicina



Creative Commons License
Universa Medicina by Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://univmed.org/ejurnal/index.php/medicina/